Platelets. 2016 Nov 7:1-9. [Epub ahead of print]
The effects of hydrogen sulfide on platelet-leukocyte aggregation and microvascular thrombolysis.
The volatile transmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is known for its various functions in vascular biology. This study evaluates the effect of the H2S-donor GYY4137 (GYY) on thrombus stability and microvascular thrombolysis. Human whole blood served for all in vitro studies and was analyzed in a resting state, after stimulation with thrombin-receptor activating peptide (TRAP) and after incubation with 10 or 30 mM GYY or its vehicle DMSO following TRAP-activation, respectively. As a marker for thrombus stability, platelet-leukocyte aggregation was assessed using flow cytometry after staining of human whole blood against CD62P and CD45, respectively. Furthermore, morphology and quantity of platelet-leukocyte aggregation were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (scanning EM). Therefore, platelets were stained for CD62P followed by immuno gold labeling. In vivo, the dorsal skinfold chamber preparation was performed for light/dye induction of thrombi in arterioles and venules using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Thrombolysis was assessed 10 and 22 h after thrombus induction and treatment with the vehicle, GYY, or recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA). Flow cytometry revealed an increase of CD62P/CD45 positive aggregates after TRAP stimulation of human whole blood, which was significantly reduced by preincubation with 30 mM GYY. Scanning EM additionally showed a reduced platelet-leukocyte aggregation and a decreased leukocyte count within the aggregates after preincubation with GYY compared to TRAP stimulation alone. Further on, morphological signs of platelet activation were found markedly reduced upon treatment with GYY. In mice, both GYY and rtPA significantly accelerated arteriolar and venular thrombolysis compared to the vehicle control. In conclusion, GYY impairs thrombus stability by reducing platelet-leukocyte aggregation and thereby facilitates endogenous thrombolysis.
Oncotarget. 2016 Jul 28. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.10892. [Epub ahead of print]
Intratumoral heterogeneity of the therapeutical response to gemcitabine and metformin.
Cancer heterogeneity and microenvironmental aspects within a tumor are considered key factors influencing resistance of carcinoma cells to distinct chemotherapeutical agents. We evaluated a high concentration of metformin in combination with gemcitabine on a syngeneic orthotopic mouse model using 6606PDA cells. We observed reduced tumor size and reduced cancer cell proliferation after three weeks of chemotherapy with either compound and noticed an additive effect between gemcitabine and metformin on tumor weight. Interestingly, distinct areas of the carcinoma responded differently to either compound. Metformin inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells close to the desmoplastic reaction, whereas gemcitabine inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells mainly 360-570 μm distant to the desmoplastic reaction. Indeed, co-culture of pancreatic stellate cells with 6606PDA, 7265PDA or MIA PaCa-2 cells increased gemcitabine resistance. Metformin resistance, however, was increased by high glucose concentration in the medium. Other factors such as hypoxia or the pH of the medium had no influence on gemcitabine or metformin induced inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. These data demonstrate a spatial heterogeneity in drug resistance within pancreatic adenocarcinomas and that microenvironmental aspects such as supply of glucose and the presence of pancreatic stellate cells regulate cancer cell sensitivity towards metformin or gemcitabine.